Second Year Curriculum

At the beginning of the second professional year, students participate in supervised vision and disease screening activities. In the spring semester of the second year, students undergo instruction in integrated clinical problem-based learning, where they gain experience in the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients.

Second Professional Year; 44 credit hours

Fall Semester

Second Year Fall Semester
Course Number Course Title Credit Hours
OPT211 Advanced Optometry 4.5
OPT217 Pharmacological Sciences I 3.0
OPT215 Ocular Physiology 2.0
OPT212 Clinical Ophthalmic Optics 3.0
OPT213 Binocular Vision and Oc. Motility 4.5
OPT218 Organ Pathology 3.0
OPT214 Clinical Internship I 1.5
  Total Credits 21.5

Spring Semester

Second Year Spring Semester
Course Number Course Title Credit Hours
OPT221 Clinical Optometry 3.0
OPT229 Integrated Problem-Based Learning I 1.5
OPT226 Anterior Segment Pathology I 4.5
OPT228 Ocular Pharmacology 1.5
OPT227 Pharmacological Sciences II 1.5
OPT223 Posterior Segment Pathology I 3.0
OPT225 Pediatric Optometry 3.0
OPT222 Basic Contact Lens 3.0
OPT224 Clinical Internship II 1.5
  Total Credits 22.5

OPT 211 Advanced Optometry  (4.5 Credits)
Prerequisites - OPT 111, OPT 121

Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. A continuation of the optometry series emphasizing optometric examination theory and techniques to include binocular refractive procedures, phorometry, and near point testing. Lecture will incorporate a case-based and problem solving methodology in the synthesis and evaluation of optometric data in the diagnosis and management of refractive and binocular vision problems.

OPT 212 Clinical Ophthalmic Optics (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 112, OPT 122

Two hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. A survey of the clinical application of ophthalmic lenses in the practice of optometry. Ophthalmic materials, physical characteristics and nomenclature of lenses and frames, prism application, lens characteristics, layout/production, specialty lenses, multifocal lenses, aniseikonic reduction, slab off, aberration theory and lens design, low vision lenses, protective eyewear, ANSI standards and acceptable tolerances. Spectacle magnification. Fabrication of prescription eye wear. Aberrations affecting ophthalmic lens design. Optics of low vision devices. Absorptive and photochromic lenses. Instrumentation used to measure and verify lens parameters to include advanced lensometry, automated lensometry, base curve measurement and center thickness. The management of a dispensary and optical laboratory. Theory and practice of ophthalmic dispensing to include frame selection, fitting considerations, and lens selection guidelines. An emphasis will be placed on problem solving of ophthalmic issues to include induced prism, manufacturing errors, quality control and managing patient expectations. Visual ergonomics. Illumination and lighting standards. Occupational visual issues.

OPT 213 Binocular Vision and Functional Optometry (4.5 Credits)
Prerequisites - OPT 114

Three and one-half hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. A clinical approach to the psychophysical and physiological bases of binocular vision including principles of stereopsis, retinal correspondence, retinal disparity, rivalry, fusion, the horopter, physiological diplopia and suppression, binocular summation. Sensory adaptation to abnormal binocular conditions to include pathological suppression, binocular confusion and amblyogenesis and the treatment of amblyopia. Retinal to brain neuro-pathways. Panum's fusional area. Innervation and actions of the extraocular muscles. Types of eye movements and their control mechanisms. Accommodation, pupillary reflexes and their control mechanisms. An introduction to the field of vision therapy in remediation of binocular vision and extraocular muscle disorders.

OPT 214 Clinical Internship I (1.5 Credits)
Prerequisites – None

Four hours laboratory/clinic per week. Introduction to clinical patient care and clinical operations. Observation and assisting doctors and clinical student interns in patient care within the UIWSO clinical system. Participation in school screenings and pre-testing of patients. Practice in refining clinical procedures and examination techniques/sequencing. Emphasis on professional and proper doctor-patient communication and intra-professional communication within a clinical setting.

OPT 215 Ocular Physiology (2 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 115

Two hours of lecture per week. Study of the normal physiologic homeostasis and function of the eye to include the orbit, eyelids, lacrimal system, corneal physiology, corneal transparency and eye tissue wound healing. Other topics will include the physiology of the crystalline lens, vitreous, choroid, retina and uveal track. Aqueous humor production, circulation and elimination. Intraocular pressure control and mechanistic pathways for clinical intervention in the treatment of glaucoma. Tear flow dynamics and dry eye. Exophthalmometry and anesthesiometry. Blood flow and vascular dynamics of the tissues of the eye and adnexa. Accommodative and pupillary functions. An introduction to ocular diseases associated with malfunction of normal ocular physiology.

OPT 217 Pharmacological Sciences I (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 115, OPT 128, OPT 125

Three hours of lecture per week. Basic principles of pharmacology to include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, dosage, action and routes of administration. Pharmacokinetic principles. Pharmacodynamic principles. Physiology and pharmacology of the autonomic nervous system and the drugs which affect this system. A survey of medications and their actions, indications and contraindications will be addressed to include systemic, topical, ocular autonomic medications, anti-infective, anesthetic, anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic agents. Pharmacological treatment of heart failure, hypertension, angina, arrhythmias, neoplastic disease, AIDS and other immunocompromised associated diseases. Antimicrobial therapy, synergy, antagonism. Antibiotic selection. Administration of ocular pharmaceutical agents.

OPT 218 Organ Pathology (3 Credits)
Prerequisites - OPT 113

Three hours of lecture per week. A comprehensive study of organ systems and their pathophysiology and co-morbidities. Integration of basic sciences of anatomy, biochemistry and physiology with those of clinical symptoms and signs in disease states. Vascular flow and shock. Genetic disease and disorders of the immune system. Neoplastic disease processes. Pathologic, etiology, clinical correlation and prognosis of systemic pathology of organ systems of the body to include the follow systems: Cardiovascular, respiratory, hematologic, gastrointestinal, urinary, endocrine, integumentary, musculoskeletal, nervous and reproductive. A clinical approach to general and specific disease processes, diagnoses, treatments and prognoses. Ocular manifestations of systemic disease.

OPT 221 Clinical Optometry (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 211

One and one-half hours of lecture and three hours laboratory per week A continuation of OPT 211, Advanced Optometry. Emphasis on the comprehensive evaluation and testing of the human visual system. Examination and evaluation of the ocular tissues, adnexa, and visual pathways. Overview and introduction of ocular disease as it relates to normal vs. abnormal examination findings. Tonometry, three- and four-mirror gonioscopy, funduscopy, scleral depression and automated/non-automated visual field testing. Integration of visual pathway anatomy/function as it relates to visual field results and loci of disease. A culmination and integration of all testing and procedures learned in OPT 111, OPT 121 and OPT 211. Emphasis on proper sequencing and efficiency in eye examination procedures. Proper documentation in the medical record. Introduction to glaucoma diagnosis and management to include the classification of the glaucomas and their respective treatment modalities. Introduction to automated nerve head and nerve fiber layer analysis in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies.

OPT 222 Basic Contact Lenses (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 112, OPT 121, OPT 122, OPT 123, OPT 211, OPT 215

Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Anatomical and physiological considerations in the application of contact lens correction. Material and modality considerations in the fitting of contact lenses. Lifestyle and kinesthetic issues affecting candidacy for contact lens wear. Basic design and manufacturing of rigid and hydrogel contact lenses. Parameter determination based on clinical measurements of corneal size, corneal curvature, refraction and residual astigmatism. Effective power changes. Iatrogenic implications and anterior segment disease potential in the application of contact lenses. Appropriate and effective use of contact lenses for the treatment of all ametropias including myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia. Effective management and follow-up of the contact lens patient. A clinical approach to contact lens use will be used. Emphasis on troubleshooting problems related to contact lens wear and determining appropriate strategies for remediating contact lens-related signs and symptoms. Verification of parameters of soft and rigid contact lenses to include base curve, diameter, power, optic zone diameter, edge design and integrity, peripheral curves and quality of the surfaces. Radiuscopy, use of reticule, polish and modification of rigid contact lenses.

OPT 223 Posterior Segment Pathology I (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 123, OPT 215

Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Diagnosis and treatment of primary diseases, disorders, and injuries of the vitreous, choroid, retina, and optic nerve. Degenerative vitreous disorders. Vitreo-retinal disease. Peripheral retinal disease and retinal detachment. Macular disease to include age-related macular degeneration, metabolic and genetic disease, hereditary macular dystrophies, serous macular detachment, retinopathy and choroidopathy. Retinal-vascular disease to include hypertensive retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy. Toxic retinal disease. Optic nerve head diseases to include an introduction to glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. The treatment and management of posterior segment disease to include surgical intervention, topical and intracameral injections and systemic medications. Nutraceuticals in the management of posterior segment disease. Laboratory will emphasize imaging of the posterior segment with traditional methods such as written documentation and advanced methods including photography, retinal imaging such as Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT), Heidleberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) and Retinal Thickness Analyzer (RTA). The use of a three mirror retinal lens, 90D and 78D retinal evaluation, Hruby Lens and/or other condensing lenses to be used with slit lamp biomicroscopy. 20D/22D or other retinal condensing lens used with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Maculoscope or other functional macular testing devices.

OPT 224 Clinical Internship II (1.5 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 214

Four hours of laboratory/clinic per week. A continuation of OPT 214

OPT 225 Pediatric Optometry (3 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 211, OPT 213

Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Diagnosis and management of refractive, binocular and ocular disorders including ocular disease common to the pediatric population. Normal systemic growth and development juxtaposed with concurrent ocular growth and developmental markers. Management strategies and treatment regimens for the remediation of childhood visual disorders to include an application of spectacles, contact lenses, prisms and vision therapy. Unique strategies for the examination and quantification of children's needs in an optometric setting. Special tests and alternative tests for children. Practice management and office layout strategies for the practice with a pediatric emphasis.

OPT 226 Anterior Segment Pathology I (4.5 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 123 OPT 125, OPT 128, OPT 215

Three and one-half hours of lecture per week and two hours of laboratory per week. Diagnosis and management of diseases, disorders, and injuries of the ocular adnexa and anterior segment of the eye. Ocular microbiology of lids/lashes, conjunctiva and cornea. Appropriate ordering and procedures for cultures in anterior segment disease. Infectious diseases to include blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, dacryoadenitis and dacryocystitis. Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of the anterior segment and their diagnoses, treatments, follow-up and prognoses. Metabolic, autoimmune, and neuromuscular disease in anterior segment evaluation and management. Non-infectious lid disease. Degenerations and neoplastic changes. Indications for surgery and biopsy. Orbital, lid and ocular injury and their acute and long-term management. Associated radiologic studies germane to ocular trauma/disease. Ocular tissue response to injury and management interventions to decrease infection and vision loss. Neurologic pain pathways and topical and systemic pain management in anterior segment disease and injury. Genetic disorders of the anterior segment and co-morbidities and their management. Associated systemic disease and co-morbidities in the diagnosis, treatment of anterior segment disease. Appropriate use of systemic referrals in anterior segment disease. Inflammation and its effect on tissue and healing. Topical and systemic management of inflammatory response in treatment and management of anterior segment trauma and disease. Indications for hematologic laboratory studies in anterior segment disease. Natural course and types of cataracts and their visual effects. Surgical treatment of cataracts and after-cataracts. Nutraceuticals in the management of anterior segment disease. Laboratory will emphasize clinical procedures related to anterior segment care to include slit lamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann tonometry, three and four mirror gonioscopy, cultures, punctal occlusion, punctal dilation/irrigation, foreign body removal, rust removal, suture removal, corneal micropuncture, epithelial debridement, patching, bandage contact lenses, lid/conjunctival/ocular injections.

OPT 227 Pharmacological Sciences II (1.5 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 217

One and one-half hours of lecture per week. A continuation of the OPT 217. Medications affecting the endocrine, autonomic nervous, central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitor-urinary systems. Toxicology and drug interactions. Ocular side effects of systemic medications.

OPT 228 Ocular Pharmacology (1.5 Credits)
Prerequisites – OPT 217

One and one-half hours of lecture per week. Principles of ocular application of pharmacologic agents to include drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, dosage, potency, action and routes of administration. Diagnostic topical pharmacology to include autonomic drugs such as cycloplegics and mydriatics. Miotics. The local and systemic side effects of autonomic drugs. Autonomic side effects of non-autonomic topical medications and systemic medications. Topical anesthetics and their mechanism and duration of action. The use of anesthetics in the diagnosis and treatment of eye trauma and disease. Anti-infective drugs in eye care to include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, and antiprotozoals. Anti-inflammatory drugs in eye care to include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and steroidal drugs. Immunosuppressant drugs in dry eye therapy. Hyperosmotics. Intraocular pressure lowering drugs to include aqueous suppression drugs, aqueous outflow drugs, combination suppression and outflow drugs, and miotics. Lubricant and ocular surface hydration medications. A clinical approach to the pharmacology.

OPT 229 Integrated Problem-Based Learning I (1.5 Credits)
Prerequisites - All preceding courses.

One hour of lecture and one hour of small group seminars per week. A problem-based learning pedagogy will be employed to develop critical thinking and an integrated approach to patient care. A series of problems will be presented in lecture format and the seminar times will be used for student discovery and research. Student groups will be facilitated by faculty in gathering pertinent information from journals and other sources, including pervious course information. Student presentations and reports will be used in the final assessment of student learning.